New Testament Theology Matera

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Title: New Testament Theology

Author: Matera

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Synopsis

Content

  • Preface xv
    • On the one hand, there is an undeniable theological diversity in the writings of the New Testament that we cannot and should not dismiss. On the other, for those who read the New Testament as a witness to God’s self-revelation in Christ, there is an inner unity that binds these writings together.
  • Abbreviations xvii
  • Introduction: New Testament Theology xix
    • History and Method of New Testament Theology xix
    • Some Recent New Testament Theologies xxiv
    • The Task of New Testament Theology xxvi
    • The Method and Approach of This Work xxviii

Part One: The Synoptic Tradition 1

1. A Theology of the Kingdom of God: The Gospel of Mark 5

  • He calls Mark a “kerygmatic narrative” wherein Mark communicates his theology through story.
  • He divides Mark into three sections.
    • 1:14 - 8:30 Jesus’ initial proclamation of the kingdom of God
    • 8:31 - 10:52 Jesus’ revelation of the mystery of the Son of Man and
    • 11:1 - 15:46 Jesus’ messianic work in Jerusalem
  • In the case of the Markan Gospel, the central concept that undergirds all others is “the gospel,” that is, the good news Jesus proclaimed and the good news that the church now proclaims about Him.
  • The Proclamation of the Gospel page 7
    • The word "gospel" can me construed in two ways: (1) as referring to a genre of literature, for example, one of the four canonical Gospels; or (2) as the announcement of good news proclaimed by a messenger (angelos).
    • Used as a purely secular term, "gospel" (euangelion) refers to the good news of events such as the birth of a chold or a military victory. Used as a religious term within the New Testament, it refers to the good news of God's victory in and through Christ, which brings salvation to humanity.
  • The Gospel of God as the Inbreaking of God’s Rule page 11
    • The content of the gospel is twofold: God's good news about the kingdom and the church's proclamation of what God accomplished in his Son, Jesus Christ.
    • Mark presupposes that that his audience already knows that the kingdom of God was the central message Jesus proclaimed.
    • The kingdom of God is a metaphor for God's rule over creation and history.
    • The mystery of the kingdom is available only to who it is revealed by Jesus through a series of parables in Chapter 4. The parable of the seed is the key to understanding His ministry.
    • In the parable of the rich man, He equates the kingdom of god with the fullness of life.
  • The Gospel about Jesus Christ, the Herald of the Kingdom of God page 15
    • just a s the Markan Gospel presents the kingdom as a mystery that can be understood only by those to whom the mystery is gien, so there is a mystery about Jesus' identity that is revealed only to those who believe in that the crucified One is the messianic Son of God, who's destiny is the destiny of the Son of Man, who must suffer, die, and rise from the dead before returning in His Father's glory.
    • Jesus the Messiah page 16
    • The Destiny of the Son of Man page 17
      • There are different concepts about the meaning of the destiny of the "son of Man". Only Jesus refers to himself as the Son f Man.
    • The Messiah, the Son of God 19
      • Mark refers to Jesus as the Son of God on several occasions most notably the baptism and the transfiguration.
      • Again at the trial of Jesus and most importantly the proclamation by the Roman Centurian "truly this man was the son of God"
      • Mark never defines what he means by "son of God"
  • The Community of Disciples and the Kingdom of God 20
    • Unlike the other synoptics, Mark makes no explicit reference to the church (ekklesia).
  • The Return of the Son of Man and the Kingdom of God 23
  • Conclusion page 25
  • Markan theology begins with the gospel: the gospel that Jesus preached (the inbreaking Kingdom of God) and the gospel about Jesus (his ministry, death, resurrections, and the hope of his imminent return).

2. A Theology of the Righteousness of the Kingdom: The Gospel of Matthew page 26

Matthew is different from it's primary source, Mark, in two ways. Matthew includes a newer source, of Jesus' sayings from the Q source and special material from the M source. And, as such can present a more complete account of Jesus' life and ministry.

  • The Gospel of the Kingdom and Its Righteousness page 27 - Matthew calls Jesus' inbreaking of the kingdom of God the "kingdom of heaven" which is the same concept as Mark's "kingdom of God".
    • The Kingdom 28
    • Righteousness 30
  • Jesus Messiah, the Climax of Israel’s History 36
    • The New Israel 36
    • The Messianic Son of God 39
  • Israel and the Church 42
    • Jesus directs his mission to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. I was sent only to the lost sheep of Israel. Matthews genealogy presents Jesus as the culmination of Israel's history.
    • He draws the two camps as the religious leaders (Pharisees, scribes, Sadducees, high priests) who oppose Jesus, and the crowds that follow Jesus.
    • Matthews portrayal of the people begins favorably but turns harsh eventually saying "the kingdom of god will be taken away from you and given to a people that produces the fruits of the kingdom.
    • The Church 45
      • Although there was not a notion of a church, but he lays the foundation for a church with how he forms his disciples and his promise to build his church with Peter as its foundation.
      • The church is the community of disciples in which the greatest are those who humble themselves as if they were little children.
      • In summary, Israel was the heir to the kingdom, but the kingdom has now been given to the church because Israel did not produce the righteousness of the kingdom.
  • Parousia and Judgment page 47
    • The knowledge that there will be a final (and so eschatological) judgement plays a central role in Matthew's understanding of the gospel and of the kingdom and of the righteousness it requires.
    • Matthew does not develop a theology of justification, but understands that the gracious offer of the kingdom requires an appropriate response.

3. A Theology of the Salvation the Kingdom Brings: Luke–Acts 51

  • Sources for Luke included Mark and Q and another source called L which Matthew did not have access to. This allows him to accomplish his stated goal to "write an orderly account".
  • Luke continues the story of the narrative begun in the Gospel in Acts as the story of the new church.
  • The Unity of Luke–Acts 52
    • Luke develops in Acts the theological foundation built in the Gospel. Luke-Acts narrates a single story of redemptive history rooted in Israel's story and God's plan for salvation
    • Indications of Literary Unity page 53
      • This unity is indicated by literary style such as the prefaces, and in the way they both end.
    • Theological Unity page 56
  • A Savior Who Is Messiah and Lord 59
    • The Gospel: The Beginning of Luke’s Christology 60
    • Acts: The Completion of Luke’s Christology 63
  • Salvation for Israel and for the Nations 68
    • A New Era of Salvation 68
    • A Ministry of Salvation 69
    • Salvation in Jesus’ Name 71
    • The Dimensions of Salvation 73
  • Israel and the Church 75
    • The People of God 75
    • Israel at the Threshold of the Messiah’s Ministry 76
    • Israel during the Ministry of the Messiah 77
    • Israel during the Time of the Church 79
    • The Church and Israel 80
  • The Moral Life within the Messianic Community 82
    • The Need to Repent 82
    • A Community of Disciples 84
    • The Law in Luke–Acts 87
  • Hope within the Community of Disciples 89
    • The Final Appearance of God’s Rule 89
    • The Day of the Son of Man 90
    • The Eschatological Hope of the Early Church 92
    • The Fate of the Individual after Death 93
  • The Theological Significance of Luke–Acts 94
    • Luke’s Account of Redemptive History 95
    • A Bridge from Jesus to the Church 96
    • A Bridge to Paul and the Pillar Apostles 96

Part Two: The Pauline Tradition 99

4. A Theology of Election: The Thessalonian Correspondence 105

Elected and Chosen by God 106 The Gospel 106 Election 108 The Moral Life of the Elect 109 The Hope of the Elect 110 Affliction and the Kingdom of God 111 The Meaning of Persecution and Affliction 112 The Mystery of Iniquity 112 Living an Orderly Life 113 Conclusion 114

5. A Theology of the Cross and of the Resurrection from the Dead: The Corinthian Correspondence 115

The Wisdom of God and the Word of the Cross 118 The Sanctified Community and the Worshiping Assembly 123 The Church and the Church of God 123 The Sanctified Community 125 Threats to the Sanctity of the Community 127 The Worshiping Community 129 A Eucharistic Assembly 129 One Body 130 A Variety of Gifts 132 An Orderly Assembly 133 Conclusion 134 Apostolic Ministry in Light of the Cross 134 A Ministry of a New Covenant 136 A Ministry Confirmed by Suffering and Affliction 138 A Ministry of Reconciliation 140 A Ministry of Power in Weakness 142 The Resurrection of Christ and the General Resurrection of the Dead 144 The Resurrection of the Dead 144 A Building from God 147 Conclusion 149

6. A Theology of Righteousness: Galatians and Romans 151

The Truth of the Gospel: Galatians 152

Paul’s Apostleship and the Truth of the Gospel 153 The Truth of the Gospel 156 The Law in Light of the Gospel 159 The Gospel and the Moral Life 162 Israel, the Church, and the Truth of the Gospel 165 Conclusion 167 The Righteousness of God: Romans 167 The Gospel of God 170 The Human Predicament apart from the Gospel 172 The Wrath of God 172 The Origin of Sin 176 The Power of Sin 178 God’s Gracious Gift of Salvation 179 How God Has Justified Humanity 180 The Hope of the Justified and Reconciled 182 The Freedom of the Justified and Reconciled 183 The Life of the Justified in the Spirit 184 The Need for Faith 186 The Righteousness of God toward Israel 190 The Moral Life 193 The Basis of the Moral Life 193 The Shape of the Moral Life 195 Conclusion 197

7. A Theology from Prison: Philippians, Philemon, Colossians, and Ephesians 199

Philippians: A Theology of Imitation 200

The Pattern of Paul’s Life 202 The Pattern of Christ’s Life 206 The Christology of the Christ Hymn 209 Conclusion 211 Philemon: The Transformation of Relationships in Christ 211 Paul and Philemon: Brothers, Coworkers, and Partners in Christ 213 Paul and Onesimus: Father and Son in Christ 213 Philemon and Onesimus: Beloved Children of Paul and Brothers in Christ 214 Slavery and the Gospel 215 Colossians: The Mystery of Christ 216 The Mystery of Christ 219 The Mystery of Redemption 221 The Mystery of the Church 224 The Mystery of Life in Christ 225 Conclusion 227 Ephesians: The Mystery of the Church 228 God’s Economy of Salvation 229 Reconciliation in the Economy of Salvation 231 The Apostle’s Role in the Economy of Salvation 233 The Church in the Economy of Salvation 235 The Believer in the Economy of Salvation 236 Conclusion: Colossians and Ephesians in the Pauline Tradition 238

8. A Theology of the Pauline Tradition: The Pastoral Epistles 240

The Epiphany of God in the Epiphany of Christ Jesus 243

Preserving Sound Teaching: Paul and His Delegates 245 The Church as the Household of God 249 Trained for Good Works 252 The False Teaching 252 The Moral Life 254 Justified by Grace 255 Conclusion 257 Part Three: The Johannine Tradition 259

==== 9. A Theology of Revelation: The Gospel of John 261 ====

The Story the Gospel Tells 263 The Prologue 263 The Son’s Revelation to the World 266 The Witness of John and His Disciples to Jesus 266 The Initial Manifestation of Jesus’ Glory 267 Jesus Reveals Himself during the Feasts of the Jews 268 The Rejection of Resurrection and Life 269 The Revelation of the Son to the Disciples the Father Entrusted to Him 270 The Sending of the Son into the World 273 The Sending of the Son 273 The Relationship between the Father and the Son 276 The Father Has Shown All Things to the Son 276 The Father Gives the Son as the True Bread from Heaven 277 The Father and the Son Are One 278 The Son Reveals the Father to His Disciples 280 The Identity of the Son 282 Messiah, Son of God, King of Israel 282 Distinctively Johannine Titles 285 The Son of Man 287 The Revelation of the Son 290 I Am the Bread of Life 290 I Am the Light of the World 291 I Am the Gate, the Good Shepherd 291 I Am the Resurrection and the Life 292 I Am the Way, the Truth, and the Life 292 I Am the Vine 293 I Am 293 The Sin of the World 294 The Salvation and Judgment of the World 294 The Jews and the World 297 Who Are “the Jews”? 298 The Hostility of the Jews 299 The King of the Jews 301 The Community of Believers: The Church 301 The Community of Jesus’ Disciples 302 The Spirit and the Community of Jesus’ Disciples 303 Sacraments: Baptism and Eucharist 307 The Church’s Experience of Salvation: Johannine Eschatology 311 The Mutual Glorification of the Father and the Son 314 Conclusion 316

10. A Theology of Communion with God: 1 John 318

Communion with God 320

Ethical Tests for Communion with God 323 Christological Tests for Communion with God 324 Love and Communion with God 327 Sin, Sinlessness, and Communion with God 329 Conclusion 331

Part Four: Other Voices 333

11. A Theology of Priesthood and Sacrifice: The Letter to the Hebrews 335

Jesus, the Son of God 337

Jesus, a High Priest 341 Qualified to Be a Priest 342 According to the Order of Melchizedek 343 Jesus, the Mediator of a New Covenant 346 Jesus, the Pioneer and Perfecter of Faith 249 Jesus and the Children God Has Given Him 351 Hebrews and Paul 353

12. A Theology of Wisdom and Perfection: The Letter of James 357

The Literary and Rhetorical Unity of James 358

Announcing the Topics 359 Developing the Topics 361 Faith 361 Perfection in Speech and Wisdom from Above 363 The Human Condition 363 Riches, Endurance, Truthfulness, and the Prayer of Faith 364 The Theological Vision of James 366 The Law 366 The Implanted Word 368 Wisdom 369 Paul and James 370

13. A Theology for a Time of Affliction and Disorder: 1 and 2 Peter and Jude 372

First Peter: A Theology of Christian Existence 373

A Theology of Christian Identity 374 Aliens and Exiles 375 The People of God 375 A Theology for Living in the World 377 A Theology of Suffering for Christ 379 First Peter in Theological Perspective 382 Second Peter: A Theology of Christian Hope 383 The Testament of Peter 385 Peter’s Defense of the Parousia 387 Peter’s Testament and the False Teachers 389 Second Peter and the Parousia 390 Jude: A Theology of Heresy 392 Greeting and Occasion 394 Examples from Scripture and Their Application 395 Predictions of Enoch and the Apostles and Their Application 397 Appeal and Doxology 398 Conclusion 398

14. A Theology of God’s Final Victory over Evil: The Book of Revelation 400

The Narrative of the Book of Revelation 402

The Message of the Risen Lord to the Seven Churches (1:9–3:22) 402 John’s Vision of God and the Lamb (4:1–5:14) 404 Seven Seals, Trumpets, and Bowls, and Three Interludes (6:1–16:21) 405 The First Six Seals (6:1–17) 406 The First Interlude (7:1–17) 406 The Seventh Seal and the First Six Trumpets (8:1–9:21) 407 The Second Interlude (10:1–11:14) 407 The Seventh Trumpet (11:15–19) 408 The Third Interlude (12:1–14:20) 408 The Seven Bowls (15:1–16:21) 409 The Fall of Babylon (17:1–19:10) 409 The Victory of Christ and the New Jerusalem (19:11–22:5) 411 God and His Victory 412 Christ and His Victory 415 God’s People and Their Victory 417 God’s Enemies and Their Defeat 420 Conclusion 421 Conclusion: The Diverse Unity of New Testament Theology 423

Humanity in Need of Salvation 428

The Synoptic Tradition 428 The Pauline Tradition 430 The Johannine Tradition 435 Other Voices 436 The Bringer of Salvation 437 The Synoptic Tradition 438 The Pauline Tradition 440 The Johannine Tradition 444 Other Voices 446 The Community of the Sanctified 448 The Synoptic Tradition 448 The Pauline Tradition 450 The Johannine Tradition 454 Other Voices 456 The Moral Life of the Sanctified 458 The Synoptic Tradition 459 The Pauline Tradition 461 The Johannine Tradition 464 Other Voices 466 The Hope of the Sanctified 468 The Synoptic Tradition 469 The Pauline Tradition 471 The Johannine Tradition 475 Other Voices 477 A Final Word 478 Bibliography 481

Notes

Bibliography

Other facts

  • Used for: The Synoptic Gospels TRS 607:
  • Purchased: August 2015


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